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In Mazi, Kaymakli and Derinkuyu, Greek Christians built underground cities to escape persecution. There are over 100 underground cities connected to each other.

They have been carved out from soft volcanic tufa stone. Large stone slabs block passages to these tunnels, and a city is composed of several floors. The kitchens have long 2 km exhausts for the cooking smoke to exit as far away from the location of the dwellings.

Many of these underground cities are not open to the public because they are dangerous. Only the above three are open to tourists.